Seemingly overnight, cannabis in the US has gone from an underground enterprise to a booming industry - and everyone wants a piece of it.
As is the case in any industry, there will always be intricacies of operation that can make or break a business. In the cannabis industry, the intricacy that no one tells you about is managing the waste.
Example: California has three separate cannabis agencies: Bureau of Cannabis Control, CalCannabis Cultivation Licensing and the Manufactured Cannabis Safety Branch. These agencies have three separate sets of regulations for cannabis waste handling. With California being among the first states to legalize cannabis, other states may adopt their practices for licensing, regulation and waste management. Regulations vary today depending on the state and are in a constant flux of change.
Cannabis Waste 101
The main rule with cannabis waste is: you can’t just throw it away. The general rule of thumb is anything that has THC or comes into contact with THC has to be ground up and mixed with an aggregate material until it is “unusable and unrecognizable”. This is to prevent any material with THC from being accessed by unauthorized people (think minors, pets...), or from having THC end up in the soil or a water source. For this reason, cannabis waste has to be stored securely and only accessed by authorized personnel.
Cannabis, despite being legalized in 33 states for medical or recreational use, is still a Schedule 1 drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act. Because of this, cannabis waste is essentially regulated very similarly to hazardous waste. In most states, cannabis waste is referred to as “a special regulated waste”, which means it needs to be stored, handled, transported, processed, and tracked in very specific ways. There must also be a chain of custody throughout the process of the waste being handled, just like if you were disposing of a hazardous material.
Waste handling through the cannabis supply chain.
Below is a summary of the regulations that apply to most states
Growers: All plant-touching businesses must properly dispose of non-usable plants by rendering them that magical term “unusable and unrecognizable”. Typically, this is done by grinding and mixing 50/50 with organic matter, which can then be transported to a licensed composter. Growers have the option to also compost waste onsite, assuming they have the room for a composting setup and have the time and resources associated with composting. This rule isn’t limited to just plant material, though. This includes packaging, soil and everything else that comes into contact with THC. Although most states allow growers to landfill unusable and unrecognizable plant waste, composting is a better option.